1980 Societal Assessment of SPS

liaison with the world insurance market as the SPS concept is developed could result in coverage for many SPS exposures. A consistent educational process would allow underwriters to identify periods of exposure for which policies could be designed and would allow market capacity for these risks to increase gradually to achieve required levels. C. INTERNATIONAL IMPLICATIONS The implications of SPS deployment are international in scope. An SPS would use outer space and radio frequency spectrum resources that are within the international domain. At the same time, energy delivered by the SPS could be shared globally by developed and developing nations alike. International participation in its deployment could contribute to the improvement of international relations with regard to equitable energy distribution and consumption. Three important international issues were identified: controls expected to be exercised by international organizations through enforcement of treaties governing operations in space and new agreements (e.g., on microwave radiation, geostationary orbit, and radio frequency assignment) that may be required because of the unique aspects of the SPS; international organizational structures to manage the research, development and operations of the SPS; and real or perceived military implications of the SPS. 8 15 1. International Agreements The present legal regime governing activities in outer space, to which the SPS would be subject, encompasses two international organizations and three treaties: • the U.N. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) • the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) • 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (U.N.) • 1973 Telecommunications Convention and Final Protocol Treaty • 1972 Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (U.N.)