1980 Societal Assessment of SPS

of the economic infrastructure (e.g., electrical generating plants, petroleum refineries, transmission lines, pipelines, railroads, aircraft and airports, communications networks). Since the vulnerability of each SPS subsystem is very sensitive to design details, vulnerability considerations should be integrated with engineering and program management design from the start. c. Safeguards Against Threats and Vulnerabilities Numerous safeguards have been identified for the threats which an SPS might pose to other countries and for the vulnerabilities to which the SPS might be prone. Although no combination of safeguards can totally assure that the SPS will not pose a threat to anyone—anymore than it is possible to assure that the SPS will be invulnerable to attack—it seems likely that selected safeguards could reduce threat and vulnerability potentials to acceptable levels. Certain safeguards appear to be necessary as a minimum. These include an international resident inspection organization (RIO), a comprehensive long- range space surveillance (LRSS) system, and various electronic countermeasures to protect SPS from electronic disruption. System design for vulnerability and new international agreements to include proximity rules in space, will be required. Self-defensive weapons might be feasible under permanent resident inspection, since the inspection teams could readily verify the limited purpose of such weapons. The resolution of threat and vulnerability issues is strongly dependent upon domestic and international acceptance of the proposed safeguards. Thus, the RIO and LRSS safeguard concepts require more intensive investigation. The cost and effectiveness of the proposed safeguards remain uncertain. Final determination of these parameters may require access to classified data, for example, with respect to LRSS capabilities, operational control of defensive armaments, and protective designs for sensitive electrical systems. Finally, the design of new international agreements regarding proximity rules in space and self-defensive armaments must be examined in depth and given wide discussion in an international context. D. PUBLIC CONCERNS There is a substantial public interest in energy. How much will be needed in the future? Where will it come from? What are the environmental and