Figure 5,2-1. Program Cost Relationships Four major areas of the SPS program have been identified as high risk elements: • Ability to fabricate large sheets of very thin solar cells. • Control and switching of high-voltage, lightweight systems in space. • Phase control, startup/shutdown, of microwave transmission from space. • Long-life (30-years) space components, solar array, microwave antenna, attitude control and stationkeeping. The following sections provide additional cost data for each of the program cost elements shown in Figure 5.2-1. Program Management and Systems Engineering and Integration ($66.OB) The program management cost element includes cost of effort and material associated with planning, directing, and controlling the satellite project to ensure that overall objectives are achieved. These costs were calculated as a percentage factor of the satellite total cost less cost of program management (5.0 percent for DDT&E and 15.0 percent for production).