SPACE MANUFACTURING III

Proceedings of the
Fourth Princeton/AIAA Conference
May 14-17, 1979
Edited by
JERRY GREY and CHRISTINE KROP
October 31, 1979
Published by
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
1290 Avenue of the Americas
New York, N. Y. 10019
212/581-4300

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE, pg. iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, pg. v
TABLE OF CONTENTS, pg. vii
WELCOME/Theodore J. Ziolkowski, Princeton University, pg. 1
INTRODUCTION/Gerard K. O’Neill, Princeton University, pg. 3
KEYNOTE/Roy Gibson, European Space Agency, pg. 5

SUMMARY OF THE CONFERENCE
Chairman: Freeman J. Dyson, Institute for Advanced Study
1. International Considerations and Public Policy/Jerry Grey, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, pg. 11
2. Materials Processing and Asteroidal Resources/Brian T. O’Leary, Princeton University, pg. 17
3. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS), Space Habitats, Anthropology and Psychology/T. Stephen Cheston, Georgetown University, pg. 25
4. Mass Drivers, Novel Technical Concepts, Environmental Effects and Lunar Material Trajectories/ Henry H. Kolm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pg. 31
5. Fabrication and Products, and Economic Considerations/J. Peter Vajk, Science Applications, Inc., pg. 37
6. Concluding Remarks/Gerard K. O’Neill, Princeton University

INTERNATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
Chairman: Lubos Perek, United Nations
1. Four Dimensional Strategy/Michael A. G. Michaud, U.S. Department of State, pg. 49
2. Space Industrialization: An International Perspective/Rashmi Mayur, Indian Urban Development Institute, pg. 63
3. Status of U.N. Discussions on a Draft Moon Treaty/Irwin M. Pikus, U.S. Department of State, pg. 67
4. The Potential Global Market in 2025 for Satellite Solar Power Stations/Alain Dupas and Maurice Claverie, French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, pg. 71
5. Current Space Habitat Legal Developments/Edward R. Finch Jr., Finch & Schaefler, pg. 77

MATERIALS PROCESSING
Chairman: Ichtiaque Rasool, NASA Headquarters
1. Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Using a Ceramic Electrolyte/Thomas E. Erstfeld and Oscar Mullins Jr., Lockheed Electronics Company, and Richard J. Williams, NASA Johnson Space Center, pg. 83
2. Excavation Costs for Lunar Materials/W. David Carrier III, Bromwell Engineering, pg. 89
3. Near-Earth Extraterrestrial Resources/David L. Kuck, Geological and Mining Consultant, pg. 97
4. Electrostatic Separation of Lunar Soil/I.I. Inculet, University of Western Ontario, pg. 109
5. Overview of Methods for Extraterrestrial Materials Processing/R.D. Waldron and David R. Criswell, Lunar and Planetary Institute, and Thomas E. Erstfeld, Lockheed Electronics Company, pg. 113
6. Electrochemical Preparation of Useful Materials from Ordinary Silicate Rocks/ David J. Lindstrom and Larry A. Haskin, Washington University, pg. 129
7. Glass and Ceramics from Lunar Materials/John D. Mackenzie and Rex C. Claridge, University of California at Los Angeles, pg. 135
8. Gas Entrained Solids-A Heat Transfer Fluid for Use in Space/H. Keith Henson, Analog Precision, Inc., and K. Eric Drexler, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pg. 141

PUBLIC POLICY
Chairman: T. Stephen Cheston, Georgetown University
1. Space Manufacturing and Public Policy Formulation/J. M. Logsdon, George Washington University, pg. 151
2. Education for the Era of Space Industrialization/Kerry Mark Jo‘ls, National Air and Space Museum, pg. 157
3. Improving the Justification for Space Industrialization/John G. Barmby, U.S. General Accounting Office, pg. 163
4. Space Manufacturing and Technocratic Centralism/J. D. Salmon, University of West Florida, pg. 167
5. An Analysis of the Socio-Political Status of Efforts Toward the Development of Space Manufacturing Facilities/Robert D. McWilliams, University of Mississippi, pg. 173
6. The Role of Public Interest Groups in Space Policy/Charles M. Chafer, Foundation for Public Affairs and Institute for the Social Science Study of Space, pg. 183

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
Chairman: Richard G. Woodbridge III, Princeton, N. J.
1. Financing Alternatives for Space Industrialization/i. Peter Vajk, Richard D. Stutzke, and Mark S. Klan, Science Applications, Inc., and Robert Salkeld and G. Harry Stine, Consultants, pg. 195
2. Economic Considerations in Space Industrialization/Robert U. Ayres, Carnegie-Mellon University, Leslie W. Ayres, Variflex Corporation, and David R. Criswell, Lunar and Planetary Institute, pg. 209
3. Scaling and the Start-Up Phase of Space Industrialization/David R. Criswell, Lunar and Planetary Institute, pg. 223
4. The Benefits of Solar Power Satellites/Peter E. Glaser, Arthur D. Little, Inc., pg. 235
5. Start Up Considerations for a Space Manufacturing Enterprise/Joseph H. Engle, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, and J. Peter Vajk, Science Applications, Inc., pg. 245
6. Optimization of Space Manufacturing Systems/David L. Akin, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pg. 257
7. The Economics of Strikes and Revolts during Early Space Colonization: A Preliminary Analysis/Mark M. Hopkins, The Rand Corporation and Harvard University, pg. 267

MASS DRIVERS
Chairman: Kenn E. Clark, Princeton University
1. Overview and Outline of Mass-Driver Two/Gerard K. O’Neill and William R. Snow, Princeton University, pg. 277
2. Mass Driver Two: Cryogenic Module/Kevin Fine, Fred Williams, Peter Mongeau, and Henry H. Kolm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pg. 283
3. Mass Driver Alignment by Bucket Steering/Jonathan Leavitt, Princeton University, pg. 289

NOVEL TECHNICAL CONCEPTS
Chairman: Kenn E. Clark, Princeton University
1. Electromagnetic Propulsion Alternatives/Henry H. Kolm, Kevin Fine, Peter Mongeau, and Fred William, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pg. 299
2. Laser Propulsion from the Moon/Philip K. Chapman, Arthur D. Little, Inc., pg. 307
3. Laser-Boosted Advanced LTAV as a Heavy Launch Lift Vehicle/L.N. Myrabo, W.J. Schafer Associates, Inc., pg. 317
4. The Space Shuttle External Tank as a Re-Entry Module/Stanley Kent, Aerojet Liquid Rocket Company, pg. 353
5. Use of a Duct-Burning Turbofan for an Earth-to-Orbit Vehicle Booster/James A. Martin, NASA Langley Research Center

CONTROLLED ECOLOGICAL LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Chairman: John L. Carden, Georgia Institute of Technology
1. Systems Integration in the Development of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems/ J.L. Carden, Georgia Institute of Technology, pg. 369
2. Nutrition, Diet and Food Processing in Controlled Environment Life Support Systems/ J. Peter Clark, ITT Continental Baking Company, pg. 371
3. Agriculture and Food Production/J. M. Phillips, Arizona Research Associates, pg. 375
4. Waste Treatment Options for Use in Closed Systems/M. L. Shuler, Cornell University, pg. 381

FABRICATION AND PRODUCTS
Chairman: John Shettler, General Motors Corporation 1. Development of Space Manufacturing Systems Concepts Utilizing Lunar Resources/ E.H. Bock, General Dynamics/Convair, pg. 391
2. Lunar Resources Utilization-An Economic Assessment/Robert C. Risley, General Dynamics/ Convair, pg. 399
3. Design of a Space Manufacturing Facility to Use Lunar-Material Inputs/D.B.S. Smith, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pg. 407
4. Is Lunar Material Use Practical in a Non-SPS Scenario?/Gerald Driggers, Southern Research Institute, pg. 415
5. New Methods for the Conversion of Solar Energy to R. F. and Laser Power/ John W. Freeman, William B. Colson, and Sedgwick Simons, Rice University, pg. 425
6. High Performance Solar Sails and Related Reflecting Devices/K. Eric Drexler, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pg. 431

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
Chairman: Harlan J. Smith, University of Texas
1. An Environmental Assessment of the Satellite Power System Reference Design/ Nathaniel F. Barr, U.S. Department of Energy, pg. 441
2. Solar Power Satellites: The Ionospheric Connection/Lewis M. Duncan and John Zinn, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, pg. 447
3. Solar Power Satellite Beam Disturbance of the Upper Ionosphere/James E. Drummond, Power Conversion Technology, Inc.
4. Atmospheric Attenuation of Centimeter Microwaves/W. Ziegler, Sigma Data Services Corporation at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, pg. 461

LUNAR MATERIAL TRAJECTORIES
Chairman: Harlan J. Smith, University of Texas
1. Guidance, Trajectory and Capture of Lunar Materials/T.A. Heppenheimer, Center for Space Science, pg. 473
2. Optical Scanning of Mass Driver Payloads/Rainer M. Malzbender, Princeton University, pg. 491
3. Light Pressure and Solar Wind Perturbations to Payload Trajectories/B.P. Von Herzen, Princeton University, pg. 499

SPACE HABITATS
Chairman: Barbara Hubbard, The Committee for the Future
1. Design Opportunities-Zero Gravity Versus One Gravity Environments/ Charles A. O’Donnell, M. Rosenblatt & Son, Inc., pg. 505
2. Aesthetic Considerations in Bernal Sphere Design/Marjorie L. Stuart, pg. 509

ANTHROPOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY
Chairman: Barbara Hubbard, The Committee for the Future
1. The Value of Anthropology for Space Settlements/Darlene Thomas, Lock Haven State College, pg. 521
2. Consciousness Alteration in Space/B. J. Bluth, California State University at Northridge, pg. 525
3. The Art of Living in Space: A Preliminary Study for the Local Government of a Space Community/Patricia M. Sterns and Leslie I. Tennen, Attorneys and Counselors at Law, pg. 533

ASTEROIDAL RESOURCES
Chairman: Brian T. O’Leary, Princeton University
1. Asteroid Prospecting and Retrieval/Brian T. O’Leary, Princeton University, pg. 547
2. Low Thrust Alteration of Asteroidal Orbits/David Justin Ross, Stanford University, pg. 553
3. Collisional Orbital Change of Asteroidal Materials/C.E. Singer, Princeton University, pg. 556
4. The Search for Asteroids in the L4 and L5 Libration Points in the Earth-Sun System/ R. Scott Dunbar, Princeton University, pg. 560
5. Terrestrial, Lunar and Asteroidal Materials Costs-Impact of Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Transportation/Robert Salkeld, System Development Corporation, pg. 569

Several of the papers presented orally at the Conference are not included in this volume, for various reasons:
• Construction of Mass Driver Two, by William R. Snow, Princeton University Ariz.
• Laser Propulsion, by Arthur Kantrowitz, D. Douglas-Hamilton, and D. Reilly, Avco Everett Research Laboratory
• The Role of Ecological Systems in Closed Space, by Lawrence Slobodkin, State University of New York at Stony Brook
• Solar Power Satellites: Reference Configurations, by Clarke Covington, NASA Johnson Space Center
• Manufacture of Complex Shapes by Vapor Phase Fabrication, by H. Keith Henson, Tucson,
• Effects of Large Object Collisions with the Earth, by Theodore B. Taylor, Princeton University
• The Search for Earth-Approaching Asteroids, by Eugene M. Shoemaker, Eleanor F. Helm, and Schelte J. Bus, California Institute of Technology

Technology for Human Space Settlement