SPACE STUDIES INSTITUTE
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[[librarian note: This address is here, as it was in the original printed newsletter, for historical reasons. It is no longer the physical address of SSI. For contributions, please see this page]]
THE HIGH FRONTIER® NEWSLETTER
VOLUME XX ISSUE 4 JULY/AUGUST 1994
FROM SSI HEADQUARTERS
Conference Dates Set
The twelfth SSI Conference on Space Manufacturing is scheduled to take place in Princeton, NJ, May 4-7, 1995. In order that many more of our Members and Senior Associates may attend, we have scheduled the conference sessions to run Thursday through Saturday, with the free wrap-up session and picnic on Sunday, May 7.
Although the conference is technical by nature, the multi-disciplinary sessions offer something for everyone. We encourage as many of you as possible to attend. SSI Members and Senior Associates who have attended the conference and picnic in the past have all found the experience to be rewarding. Princeton is a lovely town; plan on spending a few days with us next spring. Mark your calendar today! The Call for Papers appears on page 7 of this newsletter.
World Future Society
Dr. Seth Potter, SSI’s principal researcher on solar power satellites, presented a paper at the recent World Future Society conference in Cambridge, MA. His presentation was based on the article written by Dr. O’Neill which appeared in both Trilogy magazine and the May/June 92 issue of SSI Update. The article and presentation are both titled The World’s Energy Future Belongs in Space. The article is a clear and compelling argument supporting space-based solar power. If you would like a reprint of the article, please drop a postcard to SSI or leave a message with our voice mail service: xxx-xxx-xxxx.
SSI is now a member of the Hertz Benefit Program. What this means is that you, as an SSI member, receive up to 10% discount when you rent a car through Hertz. SSI could also receive some benefits if our volume is high. If you would like to receive 10% off coupons, please call our office, or leave a message on our message service: xxx-xxx-xxxx.
The Space Business Archive, a Space Studies Institute program, is continuing to make available the NPO Energia Guide to Products and Services and MIR 1 Space Station: A Technical Overview.
To order copies of the guides, please send $79.00/guide or $142.00/set plus shipping ($5.00 US, $15.00 non-US addresses) to SSI/SBA, P.O. Box 82, Princeton, NJ 08542. You may order by phone, FAX or E-mail using a MasterCard or Visa.
OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM FOR LUNAR MATERIALS PROCESSING
Physical Sciences Inc.
Andover, MA 01810
Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International
Canoga Park, CA 91309
Space Systems Division
Downey, CA 90241
In this paper, we discuss the application ofthe Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for lunar materials processing. In the OW Solar Energy System, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar energy to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the high intensity solar radiation to the thermal reactor which is used for lunar materials processing. In the OW Solar Energy System the intensity or the spectral characteristics can be tailored to specific materials processing steps. Furthermore the system can provide solar energy to locations or inside enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy. The modular system can be easily transported and deployed at the lunar site. Thermal load calculations for several reactor configurations show that process temperatures in the range of 1400 to 2500 K can be achieved at thermal efficiencies in the range of 75% to 85%. This temperature range is compatible with most high temperature processes according to a survey of In-Space Resource Utilization (ISRU) processes.
The underlying motivation for using native lunar materials for production of propellants and other products is the reduction of cost for exploring and living on the Moon. In the case of material for construction and habitation, if these are produced on the Moon, the cost of shipping them to the Moon will be reduced greatly. Of course, the production equipment must still be shipped to the Moon, but this will be a one-time cost. The cost of shipping materials to the Moon is related to the amount of propellant needed to get them there. Producing liquid oxygen (LOX) on the Moon is even more attractive because LOX is used in propulsion systems on the Moon as well as in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). According to NASA’s Report of the 90-Day Study on the Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, the amount of mass that must be launched into LEO could be cut by 300 tons/year if LOX were produced on the Moon.
Clearly, oxygen is a high priority product of lunar resource utilization. As discussed above, the major use of oxygen will be as a propellent. Construction of infrastructure will be another important use for lunar resources. Shielding from radiation as well as from rocket launches and structural components for habitats will be needed on the surface. Bringing construction materials from Earth would require a tremendous amount of fuel, but bricks, rods, or fibrous insulation could all be fabricated from native regolith using thermal processing.
Solar thermal energy has some clear advantages over other means of generating electricity. Solar thermal generation can produce high temperatures which are needed for some resource processing applications. Using energy directly from the Sun is also more efficient than generating electricity from the Sun and then converting the electricity to thermal energy.
The solar furnace concepts developed in the past depended on simple solar concentration by parabolic reflectors or Fresnel lenses. The concentrated solar radiation was to be applied to the materials in the furnace directly or through a window. In such an arrangement it is often difficult to achieve an ideal heating for material processing because solar power is concentrated in a high temperature spot, which can cause uneven heating and vaporization of some material components. In previous work on solar heating of oxide materials, meteoritic material has been heated in a solar furnace with the aim of deducing formation processes for the solar system. Temperatures as high as 3000°C were observed. However, more than 70% of the material was estimated to have vaporized.1 Basaltic samples were also processed in the solar furnace, resulting in residues containing only calcium, aluminum, and oxygen.2
Because of these difficulties in controlling the process environment, some material processing cycles must employ electric heating at the expense of significant energy inefficiency. Recently, Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in collaboration with Rockwell International, started a program to apply the OW Solar Energy System to lunar material processing. A schematic of the OW Solar Energy System is given in Figure 1. Solar radiation is collected by an array of concentrators that transfer the concentrated solar radiation to optical fiber bundles. The OW transmission lines transmit the highly concentrated solar radiation to the thermal reactor for lunar material processing. The features of the OW Solar Energy System include: (1) highly concentrated solar radiation (~104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW transmission lines directly into the thermal reactor for efficient material processing; (2) solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific material processing steps; (3) solar energy can be transported to locations that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) the system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base. A detailed analysis of the OW system and its components is given elsewhere.3 In this paper we will discuss preliminary results of the present study on the application of the OW system to lunar material processing.
An analysis of several generic thermal reactor designs is considered first in order to map the range of process temperatures and solar concentration ratios that are practical for the OW system. Following this analysis, we survey lunar resource utilization processes which are compatible with the achievable temperatures and other processing conditions.
Thermal Reactor Analysis
Over the last two decades, significant progress has been made in the development of optical fibers and related optical devices. The status of material and manufacturing technologies for these optical devices has matured to such a stage that it is possible to apply optical fibers to transmission of solar radiation for material processing. The first theoretical study of the application of optical fibers to solar power transmission was made by D. Kato and T. Nakamura in 1976.4 They studied the transmission of solar radiation within optical fibers based on intrinsic attenuation characteristics and concluded that it is possible to transmit solar radiation via a fused-silica optical fiber over a distance of approximately 100m. It is to be noted that such a distance, though too short for telecommunication applications, is perfectly satisfactory for a lunar material processing facility.
The first experimental demonstration of an optical fiber solar furnace was reported by Cariou, Dugas, and Martin in 1983.5 Figure 2 shows a spherical solar furnace (1.5 cm in diameter). An aluminum ball was placed at the center of a spherical cavity. Optical fibers are directed to the aluminum ball such that the concentrated solar radiation flux from the fiber intersects the receiver ball. The furnace cavity was evacuated to reduce convective heat loss. At an experiment using six 1-mm diameter optical fiber delivering a total of 9 Watts of solar power, Cariou, et al.,6 achieved a receiver temperature of 615°C. The experiment was terminated when the oxide film on the aluminum ball started to evaporate, thereby reducing absorptivity of the receiver surface.
Basic Thermal Reactor Configuration
To assess performance characteristics of a solar thermal reactor using optical fibers, we conduct a basic analysis of the OW solar thermal reactor based on the models shown in Figure 3. In this figure two other reactor cavity configurations, cylindrical and spherical, are represented. These models represent basic configurations for radiation heat transfer mechanisms which provide a general formulation of the OW thermal reactor performance. For these reactor models, the optical fibers inject the concentrated solar radiation through holes in the reactor cavity wall. The assumed condition is that the solar radiation first reaches the reactor cavity receiver without missing it. A detailed discussion of the thermal reactor cavity heat balance is given below. The notations and definitions necessary for the analysis are given in Table 1.
Thermal Reactor Cavity Heat Balance
In the following sections a detailed radiation heat balance will be conducted. The solar reactor configuration being used for the following analysis is the cylindrical reactor cavity configuration given in Figure 3. The cylindrical cavity configuration is chosen for this analysis because of its relevance to the actual engineering applications. For simplicity the cavity wall is assumed to be cold which means that the cavity wall reflects and absorbs, but does not emit.
Table 1. Notation and Definitions for the Optical Waveguide Thermal Reactor Analysis
The solar radiation from the optical fiber that is absorbed by the reactor tube may be expressed as
The subscript 1 indicates the surface optical properties for the solar spectral range.
Re-radiation from the reactor tube to the cavity wall may be expressed as
The subscript 2 indicates the surface optical properties for the re-radiation spectral range.
The solar spectrum from the optical fiber that is reflected from the reactor tube and recovered at the cavity wall may be expressed as
The re-radiation recovered at the cavity wall is
The total input to the reactor, Pr, is obtained from the expressions (1), (2), (3), and (4) as
which can be rearranged to yield
The first term on the r.h.s. of Eq. (5) is the net solar radiation absorbed by the cavity while the second term is the net re-radiation lost from the cavity. Note that the second term goes to zero for either Pw25 1 or fr = 1, i.e., for either a perfectly reflective wall or for perfect heat recovery at the cavity wall. In either case, Eq. (5) reduces to Pr = Pf. Equation (5) may be rearranged as
Defining the AMO solar radiation temperature, To, such that
Equation (5a) may be rearranged as
where the reactor efficiency π is defined as
Equation (5b) can be generalized for spherical, cylindrical, and flat reactor cavity configurations by given the expression as
where n = 2 for spherical cavity
n = 1 for cylindrical cavity
n = 0 for flat cavity
Equation (6) relates the reactor receiver temperature, Tr, to the reactor efficiency, π, for given reactor configuration, optical properties of the cavity and the available solar concentration ratio.
The above analysis is based on the assumption that the solar radiation from the optical fiber first hits the reactor tube. This condition gives a relation
R/r < 1/NA
where NA = sinθ is the numerical aperture of the optical fiber, θ being the divergent half angle of the solar radiation coming out of the optical fiber end. For optical fibers of our interest NA = 0.4 ~ 0.5.
To calculate the reactor temperature Tr as a function of the reactor efficiency π, or vice versa, we must choose realistic values for the reactor gravity surface optical properties. Table 2 summarizes the reactor cavity surface optical properties for both the solar and re-radiation spectral ranges. As an example for illustration we choose rhodium for the cavity reflector and hafnium carbide as the reactor tube material. For a small fiber fill factor (kf = 0.01), Pw ≅ Po (see Table 2). Thus we have
In the following we give a brief discussion of the results of numerical calculations conducted for cylindrical and spherical reactor cavities. A cylindrical cavity configuration was given in Figure 3a.
Figure 4 shows the results for a cylindrical cavity. In this figure the reactor temperature Tr is plotted against the reactor efficiency for four values of the solar radiation concentration ratios in the optical fiber. The fill factor Kf, is 0.01, which means 1 percent of the total cavity wall is covered by the optical fiber so that, in a cylindrical cavity configuration as discussed here, the effective solar concentration as it reaches the reactor tube is lowered to CR 7 Kf x R/r. In this case the ratio of the cavity inner radius, R, to the reactor tube outer radius, r, is taken to be
R/r = 1/NA = 2.5, i.e., (NA = 0.4).
This is the condition for the solar radiation from the optical fiber to hit the reactor tube.
The cavity wall recovery factor, fr, for Figure 4a is zero, i.e., the heat dissipated at the cold wall of the cavity is not recovered for material processing. For Figure 4b, the heat recovery is taken to be 50 percent, i.e., fr is 0.5. Heat recovery may be accomplished by regenerative cooling of the cavity wall by suitable working medium. Another effective method to reduce the heat loss is to install a multi-layer radiation shield at the cavity wall. Significant reduction of the heat loss, as much as 90%, can be accomplished by radiation shielding, or a combination of the radiation shielding and the regenerative cooling. Such arrangements have been practiced for solar space propulsion systems.
Figure 4 shows very high reactor temperatures at high efficiencies. For example, the reactor temperatures of 1200 to 1500 K can be attained at 80 to 90 percent efficiencies even for no heat loss recovery. With a modest heat recovery of fr = 0.5, the reactor efficiency becomes about 95 percent.
In the spherical reactor cavity the solar concentration on the reactor receiver becomes CR x Kf x (R/ r).2 This value is higher than that for the planar reactor cavity by a factor of (R/r)2 and higher than that for the cylindrical reactor cavity by a factor of R/r. Thus the reactor temperature for the spherical cavity can be highest among the cavity configurations. Figure 5 shows the temperature-efficiency relationship for a spherical reactor cavity. As in the case for cylindrical reactor cavity, the ratio of the cavity inner radius, R, to the spherical receiver radius, r, is taken to be 2.5. The optical fiber fill factor is 1% as in the case of the cylindrical reactor. The receiver temperature for the spherical reactor is significantly higher than the cylindrical case due to the high solar radiation intensity (a factor of 2.5 higher than for the cylindrical reactor) at the receiver wall. Reactor temperatures of 1700 to 2200 K can be attained at 80 to 90 percent efficiencies even for no heat loss recovery
Lunar Resource Utilization Processes
Recognizing that the OW Solar Energy System can provide high temperatures to a variety of reactor configurations, a survey of the appropriate processes was undertaken. Recent reviews of processes for propellant production9-12 have been used along with information on non-volatile production processes13,14 and thermal energy storage.15 While this survey concentrates on high temperature processes in which solar energy has a clear advantage over electrical energy, low temperature processes such as aqueous extraction for the production of oxygen and other products have been included. Processes which produce aqueous metal hydroxides, for example, could use solar heat to dry such intermediate products before further processing.
Table 3. High Temperature Processes
We have chosen to classify lunar high temperature processes into nine generic categories. Four of these are concerned with chemical reaction or separations. Four more are primarily manufacturing or fabrication operations and the last describes a thermal energy storage process to provide power during lunar night. These process categories are listed in Table 3. Properties of examples of the classes are summarized in Table 4. In many cases, the principal heat load involves heating lunar soil or crushed rock to temperatures either just below the melting point (e.g., gas-solid reactions, sintering operations) or above the melting point (e.g., hot liquid processing). The overall heating requirement is thus often dominated by the sensible heat required to raise the temperature of the feedstock to at or near to the melting point together with the heat required to melt the feedstock. Heat of reaction for chemical processes is seldom a major factor with the notable exception of the reduction of silicates to silicon. Gas-solid reduction of lunar soils is often kinetically rate limited, since the temperature limit due to onset of melting is a process constraint.
Heat loads are generally referred to on the basis of heat per kilogram of feedstock (i.e., kJ/kg soil), but heats of reaction are expressed as heat per mole of input compounds (chemical intermediates) or as heat per mole of output water in drying steps. The entries in Table 4 for these reaction steps are based on 100% conversion of the respective elements to the end products.
The detailed basis for estimate heating loads is as follows. Lunar soil may be approximately considered to have a hypothetical composition of xMO-QO2 where x is approximately 1.3, M is divalent metal cation (Ca, Fe, Mg, or 2/3 Al), and Q represents the sum of the quadrivalent atoms Si and Ti. For most lunar soils, Q is greater than 95% Si. For typical mare soils, the molecular weight is on the order of 122 g/mole and the distribution of divalent cations is Ca = Fe = 1/4, Mg = 5/16, and 2/3 Al = 1/2. There are roughly 8 moles per kilogram of soil, containing 2 moles of Fe, almost 8 moles of Si, 2.5 moles of Mg, and 2.67 moles of Al.
Sensible heat estimates for lunar soil can be made by using surrogate compounds such as MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4. For example, the composition 1.3 MgO-SiO2 can be achieved with a mixture of 70 mole % MgSiO3 and 30 mole % Mg2SiO4, having a mean molecular weight of 112.5 g/mole. The specific heat on a per kilogram basis closely approximates that of lunar soils16 as shown in Figure 6. The enthalpies or integrated specific heats are shown in Figure 7. The discontinuities in enthalpy (measured for MgSiO3and Mg2Si0O4and estimated for lunar soils based on melting point) are evident.
Results of the thermal reactor analysis show that the OW solar thermal reactor cavity is highly efficient for various solar concentration ratios achieved with the optical fiber. This high efficiency is due to the small re-radiation losses from the cavity and makes possible reactor temperatures in the range of 1400 to 2500 K, assuming thermal efficiencies in the range of 75% to 85%. This temperature range is compatible with many different processes for the production of volatile and non-volatile products from native lunar materials. The OW solar thermal furnace can be configured in a variety of geometries due to the flexibility of the optical fibers. Thus, the OW system has the potential for application to many different In-Space Resource Utilization (ISRU) processes.
This work was supported in part by NASA/Johnson Space Center Contract No. NAS9-18865.
1. L. Grossman, I. Kawabe, and V. Ekambaram (1982) “Chemical Studies of Evaporation Residues Produced in a Solar Furnace,” Meteoritics, 17, 4.
2. K. Notsu, N. Onhma, N. Nismida, and H. Nagasaw (1978) “High Temperature Heating of Allende Meteorite,” Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta, 42, 903-907.
3. Nakamura, T. and Irvin, B.R., “Optical Waveguide Solar Power System,” Solar Engineering, 2, 1992 ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Hawaii, April 1992, pp. 801-810.
4. Kato, D., and T. Nakamura, “Application of Optical Fibers to the Transmission of Solar Radiation,” J. of Applied Physics, 47(10), pp. 4528-4531, October 1976.
5. Cariou, J.M., J. Dugas, and L. Martin, “Transport of Solar Energy with Optical Fibers,” Solar Energy, 29(5), pp. 397-406, 1982.
6. Cariou, J.M., J. Dugas, and L. Mar tin, “Theoretical Limits of Optical Fiber Solar Furnaces,” Solar Energy, 34(4/5), pp. 329-339, 1985.
7. J.M. Cariou, L. Martin, and J. Dugas, 1985, “Theoretical Limits of Optical Fiber Solar Furnaces, Solar Energy, 34, p. 329.
8. A.B. Meinel and M.P. Meinel, 1976, Applied Solar Energy, Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA.
9. B. Altenberg, 1990, “Processing Lunar In-Situ Resources,” Bechtel Group, Inc.
10. M.L. Stancati, M.K. Jacobs, K.J. Cole, J.T. Collins, 1991, “In Situ Propellant Production: Alternatives for Mars Exploration” SAIC Report SAIC-9111052.
11. L.A. Taylor and W.D. Carrier, 1993, “Oxygen Production on the Moon: An Overview and Evaluation” in Resources of Near-Earth Space, J.L. Lewis and M.S. Matthews, ed., University of Arizona Press.
12. R.D. Waldron, T.E. Erstfeld, and D.R. Criswell, 1979, “Overview of Methods for Extraterrestrial Materials Processing,” in Space Manufacturing III, J. Grey and C. Krop, eds., AIAA, New York, pp. 113-127.
13. G.H. Beall, 1992, “Glasses, Ceramics, and Composites from Lunar Materials,” presented at the 1992 University of Arizona/SERC Lunar Materials Technology Symposium, Tucson, Arizona.
14. R.D. Waldron, 1993, “Production of Non-Volatile Materials on the Moon,” in Resources of Near-Earth Space, J .L. Lewis and M.S. Matthews, ed., University of Arizona Press.
15. R.D. Waldron, 1990, “Unconventional Systems for Lunar Base Power Generation and Storage,” Proceedings 25th IECEC, Vol. 1, pp. 434-439.
16. Cremers, C.J. (1974) Adv. Heat Transfer, 10, 39.
CALL FOR PAPERS
The Space Studies Institute hereby solicits papers that substantially detail recent and current work in any topic relevant to the field of space manufacturing, space development and space settlement.
About This Year’s Conference
The High Frontier Conference XII is sponsored by the Space Studies Institute and will be held in Princeton, New Jersey, May 4 to 7, 1995. This conference provides the opportunity to bring together large numbers of space researchers representing a range of diverse backgrounds and interests.
As in past years, this conference will feature three different forums for participation: formal presentation, roundtable discussion and a poster session. Papers will be presented on Thursday, Friday and Saturday during the day. On Thursday and Friday evenings there will be discussions and workshops held. A banquet will take place on Saturday night. The summary session and picnic will be held on Sunday.
Dr. John Lewis of the Lunar and Planetary Institute at the University of Arizona has agreed to chair this conference. Dr. Lewis is well known and well respected in the space research community, and he has attended every conference for the past ten years. He admits to a special affinity for Princeton in the spring. He spent his four undergraduate years here, and then went on to earn his advanced degrees from Dartmouth College and the University of California, San Diego.
Scope and Intended Audience
The High Frontier Conference is a biennial forum for the exchange of information about the advances in space technologies, programs and concepts. The conference will attract engineers, researchers, architects, builders, educators, lawyers, economists, sociologists and others interested in the development and settlement of space.
A tentative list of sessions follows:
• Extraterrestrial Resources
• Lunar Bases
• Space Manufacturing
• Social Sciences
• Biomedical Topics
• Space Settlements
• Space Structures
• Energy from Space
• Space Transportation
• Legal and Economic Issues
January 18, 1995 Abstracts due
February 17, 1995 Acceptances issued
April 17, 1995 Final papers due
May 4-7, 1995 Conference
1. The information should be new, or the paper should be a significant synthesis of existing information.
2. The abstracts should describe how much of the work has been completed and how much will be accomplished by the final submission.
All presenters must prepare an abstract for their presentation.
1. The abstract should be between 300 and 600 words, on 8.5 x 11 paper. One additional page of graphics may be submitted for review.
2. Please submit: two (2) copies of the abstract including names, affiliations, addresses and phone numbers of all authors.
3. Submit abstracts to: by US mail:
Space Studies Institute
P.O. Box 82
Princeton, NJ 08542
by Fed Ex:
Space Studies Institute
5 Crescent Avenue
Rocky Hill, NJ 08553
A registration fee of $340 includes lunches, coffee breaks, the Saturday night banquet, Sunday afternoon picnic, a hard-bound copy of the proceedings and admission to all sessions. For early registration (before April 15), the fee is $325.
WIRELESS POWER DEMONSTRATION
An updated wireless power transmission demonstration is described by Dr. Brown to members of the International Microwave Power Institute who held their Symposium in Chicago in July. In the demo, microwave power is beamed a distance of 40 feet and converted back to DC power to energize a bank of lights. (This demonstration is tentatively scheduled for September, 1995.) The public demonstration in July, 1994, was the first milestone in a two-year program sponsored by SSI. The ultimate objective is to use the transmitting antenna shown in the picture to transmit power to an untethered microwave powered helicopter. (A similar demonstration will be featured at the 1995 SSI Conference.) A microwave oven magnetron, converted with external circuitry into a sophisticated amplifier, supplies the one kilowatt of power radiated by the antenna. The technology is similar to that proposed for the transmitter in the Solar Power Satellite.
It is Dr. Brown’s belief that the technology of free-space wireless power transmission will inevitably lead to an extension of our two-dimensional electric grid system to a three-dimensional one. In the three-dimensional grid, electrical power will be routinely transmitted to and from space.
SSI BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Dr. Roger O’Neill, Chairman
Prof. Freeman Dyson, President
Dr. Joseph P. Allen
Mr. Junta Ayukawa
Mr. James Burke
Mr. Morris Hornik
Mr. Gregg Maryniak
Mr. William O’Boyle
Dr. Fred Rose
Dr. Lee Valentine
BOARD OF GOVERNING MEMBERS
Mr. James Burke
Prof. Freeman Dyson
Mr. W. Brandt Goldsworthy
Ms. Bettie Greber, Executive Director
Mr. James Laramie
Mr. Gregg Maryniak
Mr. William O’Boyle
Ms. Tasha O’Neill
Dr. David Odom
Dr. Fred Rose
Dr. Lee Valentine
Mr. David Wine
BOARD OF SENIOR ADVISORS
Col. J. Paul Barringer
Barringer Crater Company
Mr. Richard Boudreault
Dr. William Brown
Mr. Christopher J. Faranetta
NPO Energia, Ltd.
Dr. George Friedman
Mr. George Gallup, Jr.
Mr. Richard E. Gertsch
Colorado School of Mines
Mr. Alex Gimarc
Dr. Peter Glaser
Mr. James Harford
Ms. Kathy Keeton
Mr. Jeffrey Manber
NPO Energia, Ltd.
Dr. Rashrni Mayur
Mr. Burt Rutan
Scaled Composites, Inc.
Mr. Steven Vetter
ABOUT THE INSTITUTE
The Space Studies Institute is a nonprofit, international, research and educational organization. Founded in 1977, it is dedicated to opening the high frontier of space.
SSI’s goals include using the material wealth and solar energy of space to improve the human condition both for those who live on Earth and those who live in space, and to build Earth-like habitats in space to expand the ecological range of humanity throughout the solar system and ultimately, perhaps, throughout the galaxy.
To this end, SSI has conducted and is conducting pioneering research into advanced space propulsion, the extraction and processing of nonterrestrial materials for engineering purposes, and the identification and location of lunar and asteroidal resources.
Following are four opportunities for participation in SSI activities:
SSI’s Corporate Membership program offers access to SSI’s broad base of technical advisors, access to a resume pool, and access to exhibit space at the biennial SSI Conference on Space Manufacturing. Research partnerships are encouraged.
Senior Associate Program
The Senior Associates Program is currently SSI’s largest source of funds for High Frontier research and education. The program also provides a way for anyone interested in the High Frontier to play a key role in making space colonization and space manufacturing achievable within our lifetimes. Following is a description of the program.
The Senior Associate program was created in 1979 to generate the steady funds that SSI needs to conduct research projects, most of which require money for several years. Today we have about 1,000 active Senior Associates; 537 Senior Associates are on their second, third, or fourth pledge. The program provides about 60% of SSI’s annual budget and is essential to both our research and educational activities.
Senior Associates receive special benefits as our thanks for their support. These benefits include invitations to special events, free mailings of publications by SSI, NASA, and other space organizations; and confidential newsletters, describing SSI developments before they are made public.
However, most people become Senior Associates because they want to see space colonization become a reality; they give muchneeded funds and join the group of people working to create the High Frontier in our lifetimes. As Senior Associates, they also meet others who share their enthusiasm for space exploration and development.
Each Senior Associate makes a five-year pledge to SSI, choosing one of the ranks below:
Associate: $100.00 annually
Fellow: $200.00 annually
Colleague: $300.00 annually
Distinguished Colleague: $500.00 annually
Payments can be made annually, semiannually, quarterly, or monthly.
Each Senior Associate receives a number with his or her rank, indicating when he or she joined the program. For example, the next person to join could become Fellow 368, or Distinguished Colleague 126. Each Senior Associate receives a certificate, signed by SSI’s president, as a permanent record that he or she was one of the first people who gave critical support to the High Frontier. The names of the Senior Associates will also be permanently maintained by SSI to provide historians with the names of early High Frontier supporters.
SSI Membership is open to individuals worldwide. All members receive the Institute’s newsletter, which is published bimonthly and keeps all SSI members abreast of SSI research, an SSI membership card and decal.
Membership fee: Regular $25.00; Senior Citizen or Student $15.00; non-US addresses, please add $10.00.
For gifts of $50.00 or more, you will receive an SSI lapel pin.
With gifts of $100.00 or more, you will receive a copy of Dr. O’Neill’s book, The High Frontier.
As a nonprofit organization, SSI relies on the expertise of many volunteers worldwide to assist in the areas of research, education, presentations, development of visual arts, and technical writing.If you are interested in the future in space, contact SSI by letter, phone, FAX, or E-mail the Space Studies Institute.
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