SSI Newsletters: 1984 November December
Space Studies Institute Newsletter 1984 NovDec cover

[[librarian note:  This address is here, as it was in the original printed newsletter, for historical reasons.  It is no longer the physical address of SSI. For contributions, please see this page]]





Space Studies Institute Newsletter 1983 Q3 image 3 Gregg Maryniak

1984 has been an exciting year for the Space Studies Institute. In addition to changing to a new computer system we completed our move to an office that provides twice the space for the same rent as our Nassau Street offices.

Although these administrative changes are important, the real measure of SSI’s progress is and always will be the amount of research performed towards the goal of opening the High Frontier(sm) of space. In this regard 1984 was a very satisfying year indeed.

Work on the Mass-Driver proceeded in both theoretical and laboratory studies. Through the efforts of Mark Senn, SSI has obtained the use of a powerful system of VAX computers. Mark is using this system to model the characteristics of a full-scale lunar mass­driver. This work is the direct outgrowth of Dr. O’Neill’s original design studies for a pull-only mass-driver. Dr. O’Neill’s mathematical model was originally run on an Apple micro­computer.

This original mathematical model was verified by the initial hardware tests of Mass-Driver III. As we approach the end of the year Dr. Les Snively and Senior Associates Morris Hornik and Dennis Mateik are preparing to push Mass-Driver III beyond the 1100g’s acceleration attained in earlier tests.

1984 saw the attainment of a milestone in Chemical Processing of Lunar Materials. Rockwell International completed the second portion of a two part research effort designed to explore critical aspects of the HF acid-leach method of separating lunar soil into its constituent elements. (An update on the Rockwell study will appear in the next issue of the newsletter.) In short, the chemical processing study confirms that the concept is feasible and that earlier sizing estimates for a lunar materials processing plant (developed during the first phase of the study) are accurate.

SSI’s most significant new research start for 1984 was in the field of Solar Power Satellite design. As earlier reported in SSI Update, the Institute issued a Request for Proposals for a study to examine SPS designs to determine which SPS configurations are best suited for construction from lunar materials. Earlier studies had simply assumed that all materials would be launched from the Earth’s surface. In SSI’s study mass is not nearly as critical a constraint as it was in the DOE studies.

The Space Studies Institute is pleased to announce that a contract for this research has been awarded to Space Research Associates of Auburn, Washington. Work is well underway and the Institute has received its first quarterly report on the team’s progress. Space Research Associates is looking at several novel thermal and photovoltaic concepts which may be appropriate for an SPS constructed of lunar materials. One interesting design under study uses Gallium Arsenide solar cells with a large mirror to concentrate the Sun’s energy. The novelty in this particular approach lies in using a much larger ratio of mirror to solar cell than in previous studies. This high concentration ratio is made possible by using a system of active thermal radiators to dissipate the waste heat.

The design team is composed of aerospace and engineering professionals working with the assistance of graduate students and technical managers. This combination enables the Institute to obtain high-quality research at a fraction of the cost of similar contracts undertaken by the government.

Solar Power Satellites with their ability to deliver major economic benefit to the surface of the Earth without transport of materials, may become the single most important driver for the human breakout into space. The research described below is a critical step in the SPS development.

In future issues of SSI Update, we will discuss exciting new areas of research that will lead to a return to the Moon and the productive use of that planet’s resources to increase the range and scope of space development. On behalf of Dr. O’Neill, the Board of Trustees and the staff, many thanks for your support during 1984 and best wishes for the coming year!

Gregg Maryniak



To celebrate the opening of SSI’s new offices Dr. O’Neill, his wife Tasha, and Executive Vice President Gregg Maryniak will host a reception for Senior Associates and local business people on November 9. Board Members Fred Rose and William Lewis, Jr. will also attend.

Robert Bonadurer of La Crosse, Wisconsin has joined the SSI staff on a full time basis for the remainder of the year. Bob came to SSI in the summer to fill the intern position. He was responsible for cataloging all the technical papers at SSI and writing in­formation sheets on all the SSI research projects. We were especially grateful for his help when SSI moved its headquarters across town. Most recently he has organized the Bernal Sphere Model Contest outlined below.

SSI is sponsoring a Bernal Sphere Model Contest. The contest is designed to bring the concept of living in space into the classroom. Any student, group of students, or class from 6th grade through High School may enter. The model should be under 1 cubic meter, fully assembled, and be delivered to the Princeton SSI office by April 1, 1985. Models will be judged on accuracy, creativity, and appearance. The winning model will be on permanent display at SSI. Cash prizes will be awarded to the top three entries, to be spent on science equipment for the participant’s school. For entry blank and kit (bernal sphere blueprint, slides, description and rules) send $3.00 to cover cost and postage to: Space Studies Institute, Bernal Sphere, 285 Rosedale Road, Princeton, NJ 08540.

The Museum of Science and Space Transit Planetarium of Miami, Florida reported over 9,300 people attending the “Dreams Become Reality – The Future in Space” exhibit in September. SSI supplied a display and information to the Museum and local media.

Special thanks go to Morris Hornik and Dennis Mateik for their assistance to Dr. Snively in preparing Mass-Driver III for testing at full power. And also to Joanne Palmeri, Keith Morton, Marilyn Kirkpatrick, Ray Hoover, Tom Glinos, Angela Glinos, and Steven Vetter for stuffing the September/October newsletter, their help is always greatly appreciated.

A Senior Associates Reception is planned for the afternoon of May 11, 1985 following the conference summary session. SSI will host the reception at the new headquarters. Invitations will be mailed in April to all Senior Associates, but we would like to give this advance notice hoping you will include the reception in your conference plans.

If you would like a copy of Part 5 of the SSI Bibliography please send a stamped, self addressed business size envelope to:

285 Rosedale Road
Princeton, NJ 08540
(Please allow four weeks for delivery)

A SPECIAL WELCOME TO SSI’S NEWEST MEMBERS: Zachary Michael Snively, born May 22, 1984 to Dr. and Mrs. Leslie 0. Snively and Claire Ann Maryniak born October 5, 1984 to Mr. and Mrs. Gregg Maryniak.



James D. Burke is a member of The Space Studies Institute Board of Trustees, and is a technical advisor  at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

By James D. Burke

The idea of using extraterrestrial resources is making progress. Last summer at the University of California in San Diego, study groups met during ten weeks to consider all aspects of the problem. The sponsors were NASA, the California Space Institute, and the American Society for Engineering Education. Eighteen Faculty Fellows, including the writer, were appointed to spend the entire period at UCSD and more than fifty other people came in for one-week workshops on particular subjects.

People from many fields were invited. In addition to engineers and scientists there were industrial managers, astronauts, lawyers, political and social scientists, anthropologists, historians, and psychologists. Our purpose was to examine the prospect of humanity’s future in space from many points of view, always with emphasis on the role of off-Earth resources: lunar, near­Earth asteroidal, and martian materials, sunlight, and the special environments available in space.

The greatest of all resources off­Earth will be people. Once humans are residing on the Moon and in space in large enough numbers to be productive, a qualitative change in human use of natural resources – and perhaps even in the nature of humanity – can begin. The materials, energy, and environments available off-Earth can be shaped by the human mind and hand (aided, of course, by robots) in such a way as to hasten human penetration of the cosmos and rapidly increase the benefits of living there.

The study group was directed to examine possible space programs with a reference date of 2010 A.D., and to discuss the nature and role of extraterrestrial resources in those programs. We found that the resources would mostly be used in the space program itself, the net product being a faster growth in the flow of new information to Earth – and in the store of new information available off-Earth. Some of this new information would be scientific and technical, but a lot of it might take the form of new social structures and ways of living, as has happened after human migrations and access to new resources on Earth.

The UCSD meeting reinforced the conclusions of prior studies, including those of SSI: It is now time for detailed laboratory work and scientific and engineering pilot experiments on the extraction, processing and use of lunar and asteroidal materials, and it is now time to begin developing the transport and energy-conversion systems that will be needed in future space projects using extraterrestrial resources. One object of the summer study was to define requirements that could be met in the design of near-term systems, including the Space Station, so as to enable access to space resources in the farther future. For example, we recommended that lunar transport be considered from the beginning in the design of rocket vehicles whose first use would be between the Space Station and geosynchronous orbits. These are called OTV, for Orbital Transfer Vehicles, and are conceived as space-based and ultimately manned ferry craft traveling between low Earth orbit and higher energy orbits or locations in space. An OTV that can go to and from geosynchonous orbits meets many of the guidance and propulsion requirements for going to the Moon, so it makes sense to consider the lunar mission as a possible later application of OTV.

Our other recommendations included several that will be familiar to readers of SSI Update. We urged that more effort be applied, both in university research and in NASA and other government technology programs, to the problems of mining and processing lunar and asteriodal materials. We advocated remote-sensing missions, using Planetary Observer spacecraft, to the Moon and near-Earth asteroids for evaluating the resource potential of unexplored regions. And we recommended early consideration of the many human, commercial, and policy problems that will surround the first attempts to create viable and productive settlements off-Earth.

The meeting was a grand learning experience for all who attended it, many of whom had had no previous involvement in space programs. It rekindled our optimism and set forth an explicit vision of a peaceful, productive and rewarding future for humanity in space.


By R. Scott Dunbar

R. Scott Dunbur received his Ph.D. in physics in 1980 from Princeton University, und is currently at JPL actively engaged in the search for near-Earth asteroids with  Eleanor Helin. His dissertation research at Princeton, under the direction of Professor Gerard K. O’Neill, dealt with the stability of Earth Trojan orbits and was partially supported by a grant from the Space Studies Institute.

Asteroids, once referred to by astronomers as the “vermin of the skies”, now command intense scientific interest. Asteroids may provide the keys to unlocking the secrets of solar system formation and dynamics and represent potentially valuable future raw materials for large-scale human operations in space. Most of the approximately 5000 known asteriods orbit the Sun in the “main belt” between Mars and Jupiter, but several special groups of objects exist outside the main belt. For instance, there are asteroids with orbits largely inside Earth’s orbit (the “Aten” class of Earth-crossing asteroids), and one object, 2060 Chiron, with an orbit between Saturn and Uranus.

One of the most dynamically interesting groups, the Trojans, occupy the stable regions surrounding the Jupiter-Sun equilateral Lagrange points L4 and L5. The Trojans are at about the same mean distance from the Sun as Jupiter, but are prevented from colliding with the giant planet because of the special stability properties of the Lagrange point regions. As a result, there exist two swarms of asteroids, one leading Jupiter in its orbit and one following, with a total population estimated to be about 900 to a diameter of 5 km . The name “Trojans” originated with the Homeric names given to the first known objects, with those in the leading (L4) swarm named for the victorious Greeks (Achilles, Hektor, Agamemnon) and those in the trailing (L5) swarm for the defenders of Troy (Priam, Troilus, Anchises). “Trojan” has since become a generic term for any object, real or hypothetical, whose motion is subject to the peculiar dynamics of the stable Lagrange points.

Considerations of possible sources of extraterrestrial materials for space manufacturing led to the suggestion, attributed to Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven, that Trojan asteroids in the Earth-Sun Lagrange point regions would be among the most accessible objects in the solar system. There is only one problem – no such asteroids have yet been found!

Earth Trojan Orbits

By analogy with the Jupiter Trojan asteroids, we would expect that Earth Trojans would occupy orbits very similar to the orbit of the Earth. The orbital semimajor axis, or mean distance from the Sun, of a Trojan must be within 0.2% of 1 astronomical unit (about 93 million miles), the semimajor axis of the Earth’orbit. The orbit should be fairly circular, with a low orbital eccentricity, and may be inclined to the Earth’s orbit plane by as much as 10° to 15°. It is the small differences in orbital period which lead to the characteristic motion of a Trojan. When viewed in a reference frame rotating at the same rate as the Earth, we find that the Trojan object executes a slow oscillation, or libration, about one of the Lagrange points, as shown in Figure 1. The period of these librations for Earth Trojans is very long – in excess of 220 years!

One explanation put forward in the past for the failure to find Earth Trojans is that perturbations by the major planets, particularly Jupiter and Venus, upset the stability of the libration orbits. This was investigated in the author’s Ph.D. dissertation (Princeton, 1980), and the conclusion was reached that there was really no significant effect on Earth Trojan orbital stability for times of the order of a million years. Only perturbations with periods very close to the long-period librations were concluded to have an effect, and no such resonant perturbations were found to exist.

The absence of Earth Trojans might still be explained by considerations of their origin. One view is that Trojans are primordial objects left over after the accumulation or accretion of the “parent” planet at the time of its formation, approximately 4 billion years ago. In this view, the Trojans were protected from the sweeping action of the newly-forming planet by the stability of the Lagrange points. However, since the stability of the libration orbits cannot be proven with present techniques for times of the order of the age of the solar system, we cannot be sure that an original population of Trojans could have been retained since the formation of the Earth. Another view is that the Trojans of Jupiter are all captured objects, such as comets. If capture is the only mechanism available for maintaing a population of Earth Trojans, the small capture probability of the Earth relative to Jupiter would probably prohibit the formation of any sizable Trojan group.
Finally, there is the view that Earth Trojans have not been found because we haven’t really searched for them completely enough. The best way to test for the existence of Earth Trojan asteroids is to actually conduct a sensitive search for them.

Searches for Earth Trojans

The search for Earth Trojans is a very difficult observational problem. Ideally, the main requirement for such a search is a sensitive detector capable of covering a wide field of view in each exposure. This is satisfied only by the largest Schmidt-type photographic telescopes such as the 48-inch Palomar Schmidt. However, the observing geometry for objects in Trojan libration orbits conspires against the Earth-based observer. Earth Trojans are always an average of about 1 astronomical unit away from Earth, never present fully­lit faces, and can only be observed at apparent angular distances of 30° to 75° from the Sun. The distance and phase effects make the asteroids much fainter than they would appear at a close opposition (the discovery conditions for most near-Earth asteroids). The apparent proximity to the Sun in the sky limits observations to 1 or 2 hours near morning or evening twilight, searching near the horizon. Furthermore, Earth Trojans have an apparent motion of about 1 degree per day, moving across the sky at the same rate as the Sun. Unless some technique is used to compensate for this motion, a photographic detector such as a Schmidt telescope will not be able to detect Trojans to its full limit of sensitivity. Taking all these factors into consideration, the smallest Earth Trojan detectable with the Palomar Schmidt would be just less than 1 km in diameter. It is interesting to note that a Jovian astronomer with a 48-inch Schmidt searching for Jupiter Trojans would have precisely the same problems – the largest known Trojan, Hektor, would be barely detectable from Jupiter!
The most sensitive search for Earth Trojans to date has been conducted since 1980 by the author and Eleanor Helin of JPL with the 48-inch Palomar Schmidt. Some 40 plates of 12 fields of the Earth-Sun L4 and L5 regions have been carefully searched to a limiting “Trojan” apparent magnitude of about 20.5, and no Earth Trojans have been detected. The search coverage to date represents only about 15-20% of the total area of the sky in which Earth Trojans could be found, and about 40% of the area observable from Earth. On the basis of the present null results of this search, we can set an observational upper limit on the diameter of the largest Trojan of about 1-2 km, about twice the size of the smallest object which can be detected. While small compared to most known main belt asteroids, this limiting diameter is larger than most of the near ­Earth asteroids discovered each year.

Future Prospects

The attractiveness of Earth Trojan asteroids as space resources lies in their accessibility. While several near-Earth asteroids have been discovered in recent years which are intrinsically more accessible than Trojans, favorable launch opportunities to visit them are relatively infrequent. Earth Trojans, on the other hand, would have an arbitrary launch “window”, because they remain in nearly the same position relative to Earth at all times. From the standpoint of space resource retrieval, small objects with diameters of tens or a few hundreds of meters are likely to be much easier to handle than kilometer-sized objects. Such small objects, however, are beyond the reach of present-day astronomical search technology. How do we extend the search for Earth Trojans to find such objects, if they indeed exist?

One way lies in the improvements in ground-based detector technology expected over the next decade. It is expected that in 10-12 years the photographic plates existing large Schmidt telescopes will be replaced by large linear arrays of charge-coupled devices (CCD’s). This will achieve not only significant improvement in detection sensitivity while retaining a wide field of view, but also the capability for  fast, real time, computerized searches for moving objects. Such a system will be  capable of detecting Earth Trojans less than 100 meters in diameter.  A more distant future option is the use of space-borne search telescopes. While the Hubble Space Telescope to be launched in 1986 will be an extremely sensitive instrument, its field of view will be far too narrow for an efficient search for Earth Trojans. A more concentrated effort would be a spacecraft reconnaissance mission to tour the Earth-Sun Lagrange point regions with cameras and other sensors, to specifically search for material trapped there. Such a mission will ultimately depend on the priority for finding new space resources as man builds his future in space.

Space Studies Institute Newsletter 1984 NovDec image 1 dunbar


Washington Local Support Team leader, Morris Hornik represented SSI at the National SEDS Conference in Washington, DC in July. He also attended the American Space Foundation Conference in September. During the past quarter Mr. Hornik has spoken about the Institute and its goals to the Baltimore Astronomy Society, the University of Maryland at College Park, the American Society of Aerospace Pilots, and made a presentation to the L-5 Northeast Regional Space Development Conference in Pittsburgh.

Steve Morgan, International Support Team Leader, spoke before the Bridgetown Toastmasters in Hastings, Barbados. He is also in communications with Hans Starlife, they are hoping to set up a local support team in Sweden. In Steve’s role as Florida Support Team Leader, he is making preparations for a presentation before an FIT group in November, and the Harris Corporation Toastmasters.



David Simpson created the Senior Associate Program in 1979 and directed it through 1981 while a student at the Yale Law School and !he Yale School of Management. He recently re/urned to SS/ as Vice President for Development, and is beginning an appeal to major donors.

The Senior Associates Program is currently SSI’s largest source of funds for High Frontier”‘ research and education. The program also provides a way for anyone interested in the High Frontier to play a key role in making space colonization and space manufacturing achievable within our lifetimes. I would like to describe the program to new SSI members, and describe an upgrade policy which enables current Senior Associates to increase their rank easily and immediately. I will also discuss renewal of Senior Associate pledges, as many of us are completing the pledges that we made five years ago.

The Senior Associates program was created in 1979 to generate the steady funds that SSI needs to conduct research projects, most of which require money for several years. Today we have about 900 active Senior Associates. The program provides about 60% of SSI’s annual budget and is essential to both our research and educational activities.

Senior Associates receive special benefits as our thanks for their support. These benefits include invitations to special events, free mailings of publications by SSI, NASA, and other space organizations; and confidential letters from Gerard O’Neill, describing SSI developments before they are made public.

However, most people become Senior Associates because they want to see space colonization become a reality; so they give much-needed funds and join the group of people working to create the High Frontier in our lifetimes. As Senior Associates, they also meet others who share their enthusiasm for space exploration and development.

Each Senior Associate makes a five-year pledge to SSI, choosing one of the ranks below:
Associate: $100.00 annually
Fellow: $200.00 annually
Colleague: $300.00 annually
Distinguished Colleague: $500.00 or more annually
Payments can be made annually, semi­annually, or quarterly.

Each Senior Associate receives a number with his or her rank, indicating when he or she joined the program. For example, the next person to join could become Associate 808, Fellow 223, Colleague 54, or Distinguished Colleague 79. Each Senior Associate receives a certificate, signed by Gerard O’Neill, as a permanent record that he or she was one of the first people who gave critical support to the High Frontier. The names of the Senior Associates will also be permanently maintained by SSI to provide historians with the names of early High Frontier supporters.

Current Senior Associates can upgrade their rank at any time by making a five-year pledge at a higher level. For example, Fellow 120, who pledged $200.00 annually in 1981, could become Distinguished Colleague 79 in 1984 by pledging $500.00 annually from 1984 to 1989. He would stop paying $200.00 and begin paying $500.00 in 1984. The SSI records would show that he was Fellow 120 from 1981 to 1984, and was Distinguished Colleague 79 from 1984 to 1989.

Many of us are completing the Senior Associate pledges we made in 1979 and 1980. If you are amoung this group, I encourage you to renew your pledge for five more years, and to increase the amount if you can. Your support has been essential these past five years, and it will be just as important in the future.

To become a Senior Associate, or to get more information, call Connie Tevebaugh at xxx-xxx-xxxx, or write her at Space Studies Institute, 285 Rosedale Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08540.

Space Studies Institute Newsletter 1984 NovDec image 3

(May 8-11, 1985)

We are pleased to announce that Dr. George A. Keyworth, II, Science Advisor to the President, will be delivering the Keynote Address to open the upcoming Conference. Dr. Keyworth was associated with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory from 1968 to 1981.

Dr. David Odom, a member of the SSI Board of Trustees, is chairperson for the poster session. Posters will be on display during breaks and in conjunction with an evening Round Table Discussion. Each poster will be highlighted at a particular time and its author will be asked to be on hand to explain the research in more detail. Display area for posters is 3 feet high and 5 feet wide. If you are interested in participating in the poster session please submit a one page summary on the proposed topic by January 15, 1985 along with a telephone number and address where you can be reached during working hours.

A Round Table Discussion is scheduled for Thursday evening. Prospective authors are invited to submit a 500 word summary for acceptance review by January 15, 1985.

For registration information please contact: Conference Coordinator, SSI, 285 Rosedale Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08540.

A tentative schedule for the Conference is as follows:
May 8, 1985
Weds. A.M.:
Space Manufacturing and Solar Power Satellites
Chair: Peter Glaser/Arthur D. Little Inc.

Weds. P.M.:
Space Transportation and Electromagnetic Accelerators
Chair: Ed Bock/General Dynamics-Convair
May 9, 1985

Thurs. A.M.:
Space Stations and Habitats
Chair: Gordon Woodcock/Boeing Aerospace

Thurs. P.M.: Chemical Processing and Non­terrestrial Materials
Chair: Wolfgang Steurer/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
May 10,1985

Fri. A.M.:
Biomedical and Social Considerations
Chair: B.J. Bluth/University of California-Northridge

Fri. P.M.:
International/Economic Issues
Chair: Irwin Pikus/National Science Foundation

Fri. Evening:
Cocktail Hour/Banquet: Nassau Inn, Princeton, New Jersey.
May 11, 1985

Sat. A.M.:
Summary Session

Conference Volunteers:

Volunteers help to make a successful conference. If you are interested in offering your services please contact the Conference Coordinator for the proper registration form or for further details.


The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) will be publishing the proceedings for the 1985 Conference. It will be a limited publication. Each session chairperson and registered participant will receive a copy. If you are unable to attend the conference, but would like to reserve a copy of the proceedings, please send your request and remittance ($29.50 for SSI members or $39.50 for non-SSI members or non­AIAA members) to Space Studies Institute, 285 Rosedale Road, Princeton, NJ 08540. The proceedings will be mailed after December, 1985.

Dr. O’Neill’s lecture schedule for Fall 1984 is as follows:
November 15:
Lansing, Michigan

Gregg Maryniak’s lecture schedule for Fall 1984 is as follows:
January 24-February 14:

Gregg Maryniak will teach a course titled “Starships, Worldships, and Interstellar Nomads”. This course will be offered on Thursday evenings from 7:30-9:00 pm. For more information please call 312-322-0304.

For information on booking an SSI speaker please contact the Princeton Headquarters.

Space Studies Institute Newsletter Mass Driver Logo Mass-Driver

Another area of critical path research is the guidance and aiming mechanism for post-launch mass-driver payloads. SSI members who are interested in working on this project should contact us if they have expertise in the following areas:
Computer modeling or simulation (high level language)
Electrostatic devices
Fluid dynamics
High power lasers
Interested members with any experience in one or more of these areas please send a letter outlining your abilities and experience to Les Snively at the Princeton Head­quarters.

I wish to support the research and education programs of SSI for one year as a:
[ ] Sponsor ($200-$500)
[ ] Donor ($50)
[ ] Sustaining Member ($15)
[ ] Patron ($100)
[ ] Contributor ($25)
[ ] This is a renewal.
[ ] New address.
[ ] YES, I understand the importance of expanding SSI’s Membership base. The Institute’s work is critical and you need the support of more concerned people to keep at it.
[ ] I’ve done my part. Here are checks or money orders from ___new SSI Members, all of whom have joined with at least a $15.00 donation.
[ ] Here’s my special gift of $________ for the Solar Power Satellite design study.
[ ] YES! I would like to give EXTRA support for Mass-Driver III. Here’s my check for $______
[ ] Please send me information on becoming a Senior Associate.
Address City, State, ZIP:
Send with check or money order to: SSI, 285 Rosedale Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08540
[[librarian note:  This address is here, as it was in the original printed newsletter, for historical reasons.  It is no longer the physical address of SSI. For contributions, please see this page]]
(Canadian Members not using bank card, please remit in US funds by postal money order/ bank draft)

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