September 15, 2001

Proceedings of the Thirteenth SSI/Princeton Conference on Space Manufacturing
May 7-9, 2001

Edited by

Bettie Greber


PREFACE, pg. vii

Lee Valentine, Executive Vice President, Space Studies Institute, pg. 1

John S. Lewis, Conference Chairman, University of Arizona, pg. 2

Freeman J. Dyson, President, Space Studies Institute, pg. 3

J. Richard Gott, III, Princeton University, pg. 5

An Alliance to Rescue Civilization: Long Range Strategy for Using Space to Protect Mankind
William E. Burrows, New York University, pg. 11

Space Power and Energy/David Criswell, University of Houston, pg. 23
Robotics/DeWitt Lattimer, IV, National Institute of Standards and Technology, pg. 26
Living in Space/Peter Eckart, Technische Universitaet Munchen, pg. 28
Transportation/Leik Myrabo, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, pg. 29
Asteroids and Manufacturing/John S. Lewis, University of Arizona, pg. 31
International, Legal, and Economic Considerations/James Dunstan, Garvey, Schubert & Barer, pg. 32
Evening Roundtable Discussion/George Friedman, Space Studies Institute, pg. 35

Electromagnetic Fields: Think Benefits, not Hazards/Eleanor Adair, US Air Force Research Laboratory, pg. 43
The Space Revolution: Chapter 3/Rick Tumlinson, Space Frontier Foundation, FINDS, pg. 49
Traveling to the Moon and Beyond/Edward Belbruno, Princeton University, pg. 55


Chair: Peter E.Glaser, Power from Space Consulting, Inc.

Application of Functional Time-Based Compression to Satellite Telemetry/Dan Brasoveanu, Computer Sciences Corporation, pg. 61

Abstract: Usually, the evolution of a signal is described using a table that provides raw time and signal measurements (time can be implicit). Such a representation has a high a priori redundancy. Standard data compression methods preserve the tabular format, and therefore do not reduce the a priori redundancy. Functional time-based compression (FTC) is designed to reduce (and for all practical purposes minimize) this redundancy by replacing raw data with a few coefficients that are obtained through curve fitting. The independent variable is time. In other words, FTC represents signals as functions of time. FTC can be used for both transmission and storage of non-random data. To show the potential of this method, FTC was applied to Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) telemetry. Satellite telemetry links use the conventional table format to transmit time and sensor measurements. FTC replaces bulky tables of ephemeris, Sun sensor and magnetometer measurements with coefficients for Legendre polynomials. The ground station would then retrieve original measurements calculating the values of Legendre polynomials at desired times. These polynomial functions that are time-based, describe the evolution of various signals for up to several minutes. Results show that FTC reduces storage capacity or transmission bandwidth by an order of magnitude, while assuring verbatim representation of data. For higher reduction, compression should be combined with data smoothing.


Antimatter-Initiated Microfission/Fusion: Concept, Missions and Systems Studies for Exploration of Deep Space/G. A. Smith, Synergistic Technologies Corporation and K. J. Kramer and K. J. Meyer, Pennsylvania State University, pg. 69

Abstract: The energy released by antimatter annihilation is 180 MJ/ug, greater than that of fusion, fission, and chemical combustion. From a space mission point-of-view, this is exceptional because it implies a propellant source that may have little appreciable mass. Nevertheless, the antiproton mass required for beamed-core annihilation engines for deep space missions may be several kilograms, which exceeds current production capabilities (14 ng/yr) by over ten orders of magnitude. Here, we present two concepts, which are a hybrid of antimatter and fusion technologies. The inclusion of the fusion aspect can reduce antiproton requirements to 1-100 ug, which may be obtainable in the near future. Also discussed is a propulsion experiment using only 5 x 109 antiprotons, which will validate several antimatter-initiated microfission/fusion objectives.


New Concepts and Technologies from NASA’s Space Solar Power Exploratory and Technology Program/John C. Mankins, Joe T. Howell and Dan O’Neil,NASA, National Science and Space Technology Center, pg. 77

Abstract: Space Solar Power (SSP) systems are an integral infrastructure element within Gerard K. O’Neill’s vision for the human colonization of space. Since 1995, NASA has conducted conceptual design and analysis of SSP systems and technologies. The most recent study, the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) activity, involved an agency wide team with participation from the aerospace industry, the energy sector, other government agencies, universities, and non-profit organizations. Products from the SERT activity include an investment portfolio of SSP technologies, technology development roadmaps, conceptual designs and analysis, technology prototypes, and ground demonstrations. This paper presents some of the technology prototypes and discusses how SSP will enable space manufacturing.


The Lunar Solar Power System, Biosphere Independence, and the Emerging Two-Planet Economy/David Criswell, University of Houston, pg. 90

Abstract: The Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System collects solar power on bases located on the Earthward limbs of the Moon, converts the power to microwave power beams, and delivers the microwave power to receivers on Earth. The receivers output utility-scale power. The key technologies of an operating LSP System have been demonstrated in an appropriate environment and at an appropriate scale. The solar collectors and power transmission systems for the LSP System are manufactured on the Moon from lunar materials. Models reveal the LSP System can deliver >20 terawatts (1 terawatts(e) = 1 TWe = 1-1012 We) of electric (e) power to Earth at < 0.01 dollars per kilowatt-hours of electric energy (< 0.01 $/kWe-h). Twenty-four other global power options cannot meet some or all of the fuel, environmental, technology readiness, or cost targets of the LSP System. By 2050 the LSP System can provide abundant, clean, and low-cost commercial electric power to Earth and stimulate healthy net growth of the global economy. The LSP System enables a global electric power system that is independent of the biosphere. The LSP System will create a two-planet economy between the Earth and the Moon and expedite the expansion of humankind beyond Earth.


Integration of Theromoacoustic Stirling Hybrid Engines and Regenerative Fuel Cells/John R. Cable, Mars Society, pg. 97

Application of the Trajectory Solid Angle (TSA) and the Wong’s Angles (WA) to Solve Problems of THAAD for BMDO and for Future Missions of NASA/Po Kee Wong, Adam Wong, and Anita Wong, Systems Research Company, pg. 98

Abstract: Based on the SRC-BMDO proposal; the SRC-NASA proposals; the CHALLENGES AND CONCLUSIONS FROM PAPERS IAF-00-J.1.10 AND IAF-00-S.6.03 by the authors, two specific numerical examples are provided and presented in this paper to demonstrate what and how to solve the problems for THAAD and for the most recent mission of the Space Shuttle Atlantis to chase and to deliver the U.S. Destiny Laboratory to the International Space Station (ISS). According to the law of patent rights together with the above proposals and published papers, the inventor of the (TSA) and (WA) patents and the authors of the papers are ready to claim: The invention of a new directional antenna con-current to a point. This special antenna is a device with three arms each of which is designed mechanically and electronically pointing at any three ground stations with high precision at the same time automatically such that the three antenna angles which are associated with the Wong’s Angles (WA) can be continously measured and input to the Digital Sensing Process (DSP). The new directional antenna can be mounted on all the space vehicles including but not limiting to: Space Shuttles; Satellites; Airplanes; Space Planes and on all Ground Tracking Stations for the purpose of surveying; navigating and controlling of their own positioning and flying trajectories. These also include the same applications for designing underwater directional sonar antenna for the same purposes.


Chair: Red Whittaker, The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University

Skyworker: Robotics for Space Assembly, Inspection and Maintenance/Sarjoun Skaff, Peter J. Staritz, and William Whittaker, The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, pg. 104

Abstract: Ambitions to explore and develop space call for the assembly and servicing of diverse in-space facilities. Robots will assemble future stations, spacecraft and facilities that are orders of magnitude larger, more complex and more remote than those of today. Profiled here is Skyworker research developing robotic technologies for the assembly, inspection, and maintenance of large space facilities.


Developments of the Solar Blade Solar Sail/Richard Blomquist, The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, pg. 109

Abstract: The Solar Blade Heliogyro Solar Sail has the appearance of a Dutch windmill and employs sail control akin to a helicopter. Four solar reflecting blades, each 40 meters long by 1 meter wide and constructed from ultrathin polyimide film, are attached to a central spacecraft bus and are pitched along their radial axis. Embedded Kevlar and battens provide added stiffness and resistance to tears. The satellite uses collective and cyclic pitch of these solar blades relative to the sun’s rays to control attitude and thrust. The spacecraft weighs less than 7 kilograms, and, when stowed, is a package approximately the size of a golf bag. Total launch mass, including stowage carriage, is 35 kilograms. The satellite will demonstrate attitude precession, spin rate management, and orbital adjustments, after which it will sail out past the orbit of the moon. The development and successful flight of Solar Blade will enable dwelling at sub-L1 LaGrange points, hovering over a planetary pole, and travel to distant reaches of the Solar System.


Space Engineering: Looking Toward Space Construction/DeWitt Latimer IV, National Institute of Standards and Technology, US Department of Commerce and Carnegie Mellon University, pg. 125

Abstract: There is a real and driving need to integrate the disparate automation technologies in excavation for space mining. This paper describes the mining process on Earth as would be applied on another planetary body. Current technologies, commercial and research, are evaluated for their ability to autonomously carry out a task integrate with other tasks. A synthesized conceptual system design is considered to demonstrate the interactions between tasks. One task in specific, initial surveying, is examined in simulation and discussed. Finally, direction for future research to realize such an autonomous mining system is outlined.


Future Directions in Multi-Robot Autonomy and Planetary Surface Construction/Trey Smith, Reid Simmons, Sanjiu Singh and David Hershberger, The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, pg. 131

Sun-Synchronous Navigation: Terrestrial Demonstration and its Future for Planetary Exploration/Paul Tompkins, David Wettergreen, Anthony Stentz, and William Whittaker, The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon, pg. 135

Abstract: Sun-synchronous navigation is a technique that involves tracking the sun while exploring terrain. It is accomplished by traveling opposite to planetary rotation and in synchrony with the sun to always remain in sunlight. At appropriate latitude and speed, solar-powered rovers can maintain continual exposure to solar radiation sufficient for sustained operation. We are prototyping a robot, named Hyperion, for solar-powered operation in polar environments and developing sun-cognizant navigation methods to enable rovers to dodge shadows, seek sun, and drive sun-synchronous routes. We plan to conduct field experiments in a planetary-analog setting in the Canadian arctic to verify the algorithms that combine reasoning about sunlight and power with autonomous navigation and to validate parameters that will allow sun-synchronous explorers to be scaled for other planetary bodies.


Human Factors Issues for Telepresence Robots/James E. Dunstan, Lunacorp, pg. 142

Abstract: Realistic and immersive interfaces to planetary data sets have until now relied on expensive computing capabilities such as those provided by high-end computers such as Silicon Graphics (SGI) machines, and have been limited to one or two senses, primarily vision. Expanding on its prior work in this area, LunaCorp is working to build scalable consumer-level hardware/software interfaces for current and future planetary data sets for both virtual exploration and real-time “actualization” of robotic exploration. In the course of building prototype hardware, LunaCorp has learned a number of lessons about how humans interact with remote locations, which is the subject of this paper.


Chair: Peter Eckart, Division of Astronautics, Technische Universtat Munchen

Electromagnetic Construction of a 1km-Radius Radiation Shield/B.A. Ganesh and S.S. Wanis, and N.M. Komerath Georgia Institute of Technology, pg. 151

Abstract: A fundamental obstacle to building human settlements in orbit is the construction of the massive outer radiation shield. This problem is used to illustrate the relevance of a comprehensive plan in developing a Space-based economy (SBE). The problem of building the shield of a one-km-radius, two-km long cylinder is revisited in the light of recent studies on bootstrapped lunar solar-electric power plants, mass drivers, and autonomous spacecraft. Architecture for the project is discussed. This test case violates the usual assumptions about Space exploration in that it deals with constructing a massive, spacious structure with relatively simple technology to demonstrate a viable path to the infrastructure of an SBE. The example shows that both the technical feasibility and the affordability of such a human settlement rise substantially when viewed in the context of a comprehensive program for a SBE.


Sustainable Water in Closed Biosystems: Preliminary Design Considerations/William J. Jewell, Cornell University, pg. 160

A Rationale for a Human Lunar Pathfinder Mission/Robert Lee Howard, Jr., University of Tennessee Space Institute, pg. 173

Abstract: NASA is facing immense challenges. Costs for the International Space Station are climbing into orbit; Mars is far too unknown for human flight; robotic missions seem to fail nearly as often as they succeed; and the shuttle is becoming increasingly obsolete. What is the focus NASA should bring to the new millennium? Clearly NASA must maintain the shuttle and work towards a new launch system. They must complete the International Space Station, especially now that components are in orbit. Robotic exploration of the solar system must continue. But for all practical purposes, this might as well be a path to nowhere. While there are definite long-term payoffs – in the 20+ year timeframe – there is far too much room in the near future for a loss of identity and purpose. Neither the scientific community nor the American public will find much reward in a space program that spends the next five years building a space station, the next ten years visiting it, and in the background launches occasional robotic probes into space, not to be heard from until years later. While these necessary tasks should by all means continue, NASA must place them in the context of a bold vision for the future of spaceflight. This is not a vision consisting of timetables, hypothetical programs and budget projections. Those have been so over-used that they carry no meaning. Instead, this vision must go back to the 1958 Space Act and reiterate why NASA exists; it must create an inspiring image of a future in space where people beyond the agency and its contractors are participants. I believe NASA has the responsibility of opening up the space frontier. Simply investigating LEO does not constitute an opening of the space frontier; this vision must include the moon as a near term destination. There are valid opportunities for commercial enterprise on the moon. NASA must find them and bring them into reality. There are operational procedures and engineering technologies necessary to support lunar operations. We have no idea what they are. NASA must find them and validate them. There are resources in the lunar environment that will enhance our capabilities for missions in other areas of space, both within the Earth-Moon system and further into the solar system. NASA must identify these resources, learn how to tap into them, and create the conditions to make their use a reality. This is why NASA exists. This paper will define and justify the objectives of a pathfinder lunar mission intended to bring focus to some of these issues, and will investigate mission requirements and constraints to be applied to the pathfinder project.


Lunar Base Development: Design Aspects, Technology Requirements and Research Needs/Peter Eckart, Division of Astronautics, Technische Universtat Munchen, pg. 185

Abstract: The design and construction of a lunar base will be an extremely complex technical task. It will be even more challenging to set up the funding scheme and the international cooperative structures that will be required to establish humankind’s first outpost on another planetary body. This paper provides a summary of design issues, technology requirements and research needs of a lunar base development program. Non-technical aspects covered include the rationale for installing a lunar base, financing, cost, management, and legal issues, as well as general development aspects. Technical aspects discussed include the impact of the lunar environment on base design and development, Earth-Moon transportation, and site selection. The specific requirements of habitat design, thermal control, power supply, life support, communications, lunar surface transportation, extravehicular activities, and in-situ resources utilization are discussed, as well as logistics, cost, and modeling aspects. Also, it is outlined that a lunar base may very well serve as a testbed for technologies required for human Mars missions. The contents of this paper are based on countless lunar base-related studies that have been conducted in the past four decades, as well as The Lunar Base Handbook that has been published recently by the author of this paper and that is introduced here.


Chair: Leik Myrabo, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Rocket Propulsion Technology Impact on TSTO Launch System Cost/David R. Perkins, Air Force Research Laboratory and Jason B. Mossman, Spiral Technology, pg. 193

Abstract: The benefits of advanced liquid rocket propulsion technology are evaluated for two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) reusable launch systems. Life cycle cost (LCC) is used as a figure-of-merit and is driven by high launch rate requirements. This paper reports the methods and results of that study. The reported analysis focused on chemical rocket propulsion using either hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels, and oxygen or high purity hydrogen peroxide as oxidizers. Results indicate that advanced rocket propulsion can cut life cycle costs in half and recurring costs (cost for additional flights) by a factor of three. The most important propulsion parameter to be improved for this class of vehicle is the reusability of the rocket engines, with performance improvements a distant second. Additionally, a TSTO vehicle using liquid oxygen and hydrocarbon propellants in both stages has the lowest LCC. Results were relatively insensitive to engine reliability and cost.


Laser-Propelled Lightsails and Lightcraft: Latest Developments/Leik Myrabo, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, pg. 203

Abstract: This paper summarizes the latest developments over the past two years, on the author’s laser-propelled Lightsails and Lightcraft research. Reviewed first are the Rensselaer Lightsail experiments performed in December ’99 (pendulum-deflection tests), and subsequently in December ’00 (wire-guided vertical flight tests) – using the LHMEL 150 kW infrared laser at Wright Patterson AFB, OH. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA sponsored this laser Lightsail research. The ’99 Lightsail tests were the first known demonstrations of laser photonic thrust on a real laser sail material: i.e., a molybdenum-coated carbon microtruss fabric made by ESLI. The subsequent Dec.’00 Lightsail vertical levitation tests might possibly be the first laser photonic flights at >1 G, a claim that must first be confirmed by computer-based motion analysis, now underway, with results expected by Sept. 2001. Next, the paper reviews the author’s 2 October 2000 world record flight to 71-meters altitude, of a 50-gram laser-propelled rocket Lightcraft at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), NM. The spin-stabilized, free flight test program was sponsored by an independent foundation dedicated to promoting low cost access to space. In all, four 12.2-cm diameter, aluminum Lightcraft were propelled into the New Mexico skies – to record altitudes – by a 10-Kw pulsed carbon dioxide laser called PLVTS, located at the High Energy Systems Test Facility.


Assessment of the Minimum Duration for the Spacecraft Attitude Maneuver/Boris Guirchovitch, TechTrans International, Inc., pg. 208

Abstract: The problem of evaluation of time spent for attitude maneuver (rotation) during a finite rotation given a boundedness of angular rates and accelerations is solved. (The finite rotation means that the spacecraft body basis is moved from its initial position to the final one by the single rotation about an axis of finite rotation.) It is supposed that the maximum angular rates and accelerations about each spacecraft body axis are specified and different for each spacecraft body axis. Very simple solution for the attitude maneuver minimum duration along with maximum angular rate and acceleration is suggested. The numerical results can be found by some uncomplicated procedure with several formulas and two tables. Assessment of the minimum duration for the spacecraft attitude maneuver is most important for the rotations during the docking and undocking processes and prior to orbital correction.


Frequent, Fast Trips to and from Mars via Astrotels/Kerry Nock, Global Aerospace Corporation, pg. 216

Abstract: Global Aerospace Corporation is developing a revolutionary concept for an overall interplanetary rapid transit system architecture for human transportation between Earth and Mars which supports a sustained Mars base of 20 people circa 2035. Funding from the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) supports this effort. This innovative design architecture relies upon the use of small, highly autonomous, solar-electric-propelled space ships, we dub Astrotels for astronaut hotels and hyperbolic rendezvous between them and the planetary transport hubs using even smaller, fast-transfer, aeroassist vehicles we call Taxis. Astrotels operating in cyclic orbits between Earth, Mars and the Moon and Taxis operating on rendezvous trajectories between Astrotels and transport hubs or Spaceports will enable low-cost, low-energy, frequent and short duration trips between these bodies. This paper provides a vision of a far off future that establishes a context for near-term technology advance, systems studies, robotic Mars missions and human spaceflight. We will discuss the progress made during the Phase I NIAC study including the transportation architecture support assumptions and requirements, interplanetary orbit characteristics, low thrust propulsion requirements, aero-assist technologies, planetary resource utilization systems, conceptual systems designs, integrated architecture model development and initial architecture operations cost estimates.


An Inflatable Wing-In-Surface-Effect Vehicle for the Exploration of Mars/Boris Berkovski and Robert A. Cooper, Allied Technology Group, Inc., pg. 228

Abstract: In this paper we describe the Inflatable Ekranolet, an efficient and cost effective solution to the problem of long-distance transportation for the scientific exploration of Mars. The Inflatable Ekranolet is an atmospheric flying vehicle that employs the wing-insurface effect MOST PART of its transportation time to take advantage of the high aerodynamic efficiency that this effect offers, and can fly shortly without screen effect to overcome obstacles as mountains, craters, canyons, and extreme weather conditions. The concept reference mission is defined as a radius of operation of 1,000 miles, a cruise speed of 250 to 300 mph, an excursion time of 10 days, carrying a crew, scientific and technical equipment.


Chair: John Lewis, University of Arizona

Spacewatch Project/Robert McMillan, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, pg. 239

Update on the Development of a Near-Earth Object Observatory and its Role in Education/Robert E. Strong, West Liberty State College, pg. 241

Abstract: Two years ago at the Space Studies Institute Princeton Conference on Space Manufacturing (The High Frontier Conference XIV) I presented the paper On The Development of a Near Earth Object Observatory and Its Role In Education. In the two years since that presentation much has happened. This presentation is an update on the development and the dedication of the Sir Arthur C. Clarke Near Earth Object Observatory as a prototype and training Near Earth Object (NEO) observatory and the progress of the Near Earth Object Foundation. Lessons learned in this ongoing adventure will be shared. The present activities and future plans of the Near Earth Object (NEO) Foundation and the NEO Team members will be outlined in a chronological manner. The next NEO observatory in the proposed series will be the Gerard K. O’Neill Educational NEO Observatory.


Mining an Iron NEA/David L. Kuck, Oracle, AZ, pg. 249

Abstract: Less than 20 meter diameter iron NEAs, if they are in very easily accessible orbits, are attractive resources for early exploitation. Only two 2 km NEAs, one an Amor and one an Aten, are presently known. The possibility of finding such iron NEAs with radio telescopes and light spectra is very high. This data is not presently available except for a few of the larger easily seen NEAs which are almost all stones. Exploitation may be by Antarctic impact, or capture into low Earth Orbit LEO, geosynchronous Earth orbit GEO or highly eccentric Earth orbit HEEO with the aid of atmospheric braking. Antarctic impact will require the least possible impact velocity with magnetic detection of the fragments. Capture into HEEO and orbital modification to reach LEO or GEO will depend upon the orbital vector mechanics of the Earth the NEA and the transfer orbit. Propulsion will be by solar collector electric arc production of high velocity jets of metallic vapor with the iron propellant of the NEA as the anode.


Chair: James Dunstan, Garvey, Schubert & Barer

Profitable Condominium Development Using Self-Replicating O’Neill Colonies/Kenneth Malpass, Pacific Synergy Foundation, pg. 257

What Hath Unispace III Wrought? Report on the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space/Amanda Moore, National Space Society, pg. 260

Abstract: The Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (Unispace III) was held in Vienna, Austria, 19-30 July 1999. The Conference attracted the participation of high-level government officials and policy makers, representatives of intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) with space activities, noted scientists, astronauts, and senior executives of space-related industry. In addition, there was an exhibition highlighting global achievements in space technology and future developments. The goal: to construct a practical, well-defined framework for the global society to maximize the benefits of space science and technology for all people through international cooperation in space activities in the new millennium. This paper investigates the degree to which Unispace III reached this goal in its final report and documentation, with special attention to: (1) the unique structure of the conference, which integrated for the first time representatives of space industry in recognition of the growing commercialization of space exploration; (2) the involvement of young people in the Space Generation Forum; and (3) the calls for action in the Vienna Declaration on Space and Human Development (Vienna Declaration) and Unispace III Report and their potential impact on the exploration, development and settlement of space in the 21st century.


A Review of Licensing and Collaborative Development with Special Attention to Design of Self-Replicating Space Habitat Systems/Paul D. Fernhout and Cynthia F. Kurtz, Kurtz-Fernhout Software, pg. 271

Abstract: The continued exponential growth of technological capacity since the 1970s has removed most technical limits to group collaborations on space settlement issues. To remove social limits, groups must be explicit about the licensing terms of individual contributions and the collected work, for example putting their contributions in the public domain, or under a license like the BSD license or GPL as a conscious act. The most successful space related collaborations in the future will be ones that make these principles part of their daily operations. One result of such collaborations will be a distributed library of simulations and knowledge including specific detailed designs for self-replicating space habitat systems.


International Space Station is a Building in Space/James Muncy, Polispace, Rick Tumlinson, Space Frontier Foundation,and Bob Werb, ISS Congress, pg. 282

Abstract: The attitude that space is dramatically different from other areas of human activity is a serious impediment to the International Space Station realizing its full potential. The ISS is best seen as a building in space rather than a collection of spacecraft that are docked together and lessons from the management of terrestrial facilities are directly applicable to the ISS. In particular, the successful use and operation of the facility requires a management organization that embraces all the elements of the complex and all the activities that happen there. The ISS’ current management structure will almost certainly lead to failure. If we are to efficiently and effectively manage this large and complex facility we will need to establish a new international civic authority. This well understood organizational form is more politically realistic, better serves the interests of the various stakeholders in the facility and has numerous other advantages over the alternatives (complete privatization and management by the space agencies). This paper analyzes a potential ISS Authority as well as the other two major alternatives and makes the case for an authority structure.


Doing Business in Space: This Isn’t Your Father’s (or Mother’s) Space Program Anymore/James E. Dunstan, Garvey, Schubert & Barer, pg. 290

Abstract: The past two years have witnessed dramatic changes in commercial space. This paper will review the changes that have occurred within the U.S. and Russian space programs, and examine the current business environment in space. Commercial space stands at a pivotal point in history: Still dependent upon traditional launch providers (and thus high costs); still required to deal with government agencies for access to on-orbit manned facilities; and facing daunting odds at finding financing for projects in light of the “dot-dead” technology-driving stock market. Yet victories are being achieved in rapid succession. This paper will conclude with a look at what changes are necessary to ensure that the true private commercial space economy we are beginning to see will mature.